Resilience for Hire? NATO Contractor Support in Afghanistan Examined

Eugenio Cusumano

1.University of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Chapter 

Contractor support has become crucial for advanced military organisations, which increasingly rely on private providers of logistics, training, intelligence, and armed security. The different types of societal destabilisation tools falling under the rubric of hybrid threats all require expertise that military organisations alone neither possess nor can create. As a source of manpower, know–how, and cultural awareness that military organisations are not able to keep within their ranks, contractor support is crucial to respond to hybrid threats, providing an important force-multiplier for NATO forces conducting stability operations and strengthening the resilience of host societies by sustaining the local economy. The use of contractors in military operations, however, has often proved problematic. This chapter examines contractor support to NATO operation ISAF in Afghanistan as a source of insights into the presence and future of the privatization of military support.

Bibliography

  1. Advisory Council on International Affairs. 2007. [Netherlands] Employing Private Military Companies – A Question of Responsibility, N. 59. The Hague. http://aiv-advice.nl/download/51db5f8c-6e1c-44b8-8b30-c290bd206a0d.pdf
  2. Afghanistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. undated. Agreement Between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on the Status of NATO Forces and NATO Personnel. Kabul. http://mfa.gov.af/Content/files/SOFA%20ENGLISH.pdf
  3. Air Force, U.S. 1997. Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP). Google Scholar
  4. Army, U. S. 1985. Army Regulation 700-137: Logistics Civil Augmentation Program LOGCAP. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 2002. Field Manual 3-100.21: Contractors on the Battlefield. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 2006. Field Manual 3-24: Counterinsurgency. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2008. Field Manual 3-07: Stability Operations. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  8. Avant, Deborah. 2005. The Market for Force: The Consequence of Privatising Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avant, Deborah, and Lee Sigelman. 2010. Private Security and Democracy: Lessons from the US in Iraq. Security Studies 19 (2): 230–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, Eliot. 1990. Citizens and Soldiers. The Dilemmas of Military Service. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Creveld, Martin van. 1977. Supplying War: Military Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cusumano, Eugenio. 2012. Policy Prospects for Regulating PMSCs. In War by Contract, ed. Francesco Francioni and Natalino Ronzitti. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2014. The Scope of Military Privatisation: Military Role Conceptions and Contractor Support in the United States and the United Kingdom. International Relations 29 (2): 219–241. doi:10.1177/0047117814552142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ———. 2015. Bridging the Gap. Mobilisation Constraints and Contractor Support to US and UK Military Operations. Journal of Strategic Studies 39 (1): 94–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cusumano, Eugenio, and Christopher Kinsey. 2014. Bureaucratic Interests and the Outsourcing of Security: The Privatization of Diplomatic Protection in the United States and the United Kingdom. Armed Forces & Society 41 (4): 591–615. doi:10.1177/0095327X14523958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davids, Christiaan, Robert Beeres, and Paul C. van Fenema. 2013. Operational Defense Sourcing: Organizing Military Logistics in Afghanistan. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management 43 (2): 116–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deni, John R. 2014. Perfectly Flawed? The Evolution of NATO’s Force Generation Process. In NATO’s post-Cold War Politics: The Changing Provision of security, ed. Sebastian Mayer. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  18. Dunigan, Molly. 2012. Victory for Hire. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Duren, Emily Van. 2010. Money Is Ammunition; Don’t Put It in the Wrong Hands. Militaire Spectator 179 (11): 564–578.Google Scholar
  20. Erbel, Mark, and Christopher Kinsey. 2015. Think Again – Supplying War: Reappraising Military Logistics and Its Centrality to Strategy and War. Journal of Strategic Studies 20 (1): 1–29. doi:10.1080/01402390.2015.1104669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, Michael. 2012. The Silent Revolution Within NATO Logistics: A Study in Afghanistan Fuel and Future Application. Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School.Google Scholar
  22. Filkins, Dexter. 2010. Convoy Guards in Afghanistan Face Enquiry. New York Times, June 6.Google Scholar
  23. Filkins, Dexter, and Scott Shane. 2010. Afghan Leader Sees Plan to Ban Private Guards. New York Times, August 16.Google Scholar
  24. Gielink, Dirk, Maarten Buitenhuis, and René Moelker. 2007. No Contractors on the Battlefield: The Dutch Military’s Reluctance to Outsource. In Private Military and Security Companies, ed. Thomas Jäger and Gerhard Kümmel. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften: Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  25. Hammes, Thomas X. 2010. Private Contractors in Conflict Zones: The Good, the Bad and the Strategic Impact. Washington, DC: Strategic Forum 260, National Defense University.Google Scholar
  26. Higginson, Andrew. 2010. Contractor Support to Operations (CSO)–Proactive or Reactive Support? RUSI Defence Acquisition 13: 16–19.Google Scholar
  27. Kinsey, Christopher. 2006. Corporate Soldiers and International Security: The Rise of Private Military Companies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 2009. Private Contractors and the Reconstruction of Iraq. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Krahmann, Elke. 2010. States, Citizens and the Privatization of Security. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ———. 2014. Germany: Civilian Power Revisited. In Commercialising Security, ed. Anna Leander. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2016. NATO Contracting in Afghanistan: The Problem of Principal-Agent Networks. International Affairs 92 (6): 1401–1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krulak, Charles C. 1999. The Strategic Corporal: Leadership in the Three Block War. Marines Magazine 28 (1): 32.Google Scholar
  33. NATO. 2007. Logistics Handbook. Google Scholar
  34. NATO Joint Analysis & Lessons Learned Centre. 2011. Final Evaluation: Netherlands Contribution to ISAF, 2006–2010. Lisbon, September 23. http://www.jallc.nato.int/activities/rfoids/final_evaluat_on_netherlands_participation_in_isaf%202006-2010_tcm4-825602.pdf
  35. Navy and Marine Corps, U.S. 1995. The Contingency Construction Capabilities Contract CONCAP. Google Scholar
  36. Olsson, Christian. 2013. France: Making Both Ends Meet? In Commercialising Security in Europe: Political Consequences for Peace Operations, ed. Leander Anna. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 2016. Coercion and Capital in Afghanistan. The Rise, Transformation, and Fall of the Afghan Commercial Security Sector. In Routledge Companion to Security Outsourcing, ed. Joachim Berndtsson and Christopher Kinsey. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Perry, David. 2009. The Privatization of the Canadian Military: Afghanistan and Beyond. International Journal 64 (3): 687–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rivera, Ray, and Sharifullah Sahak. 2011. Afghan Report Revives Concerns About Scrutiny of Private Security Firms. New York Times, January 23. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/24/world/asia/24afghan.html
  40. Rumsfeld, Donald H. 2002. Transforming the Military. Foreign Affairs, May/June. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2002-05-01/transforming-military
  41. Ruzza, Stefano. 2013. Italy: Keeping or Selling Stock? In Commercialising Security in Europe: Political Consequences for Peace Operations, ed. Leander Anna. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Rynning, Sten. 2013. ISAF and NATO: Campaign Innovation and Organisational Adaptation. In Military Adaptation in Afghanistan, ed. Theo Farrell, Frans Osinga, and James A. Russell. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Schwartz, Moshe. 2011. The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  44. Sherman, Jack, and Victoria DiDomenico. 2009. The Public Cost of Private Security in Afghanistan. Briefing paper. New York: New York University, Center on International Cooperation.Google Scholar
  45. Singer, Peter. 2003. Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 2007. Can’t Win with ‘Em, Can’t Go to War Without ‘Em. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  47. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction. 2013. Quarterly Report, October 30. http://www.sigar.mil/pdf/quarterlyreports/2013-10-30qr.pdf
  48. UN. 2010. Report of the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries as a Means of Violating Human Rights and Impeding the Exercise of the Right of Peoples to Self-Determination: Addendum, Mission to Afghanistan, A/HRC/15/25/Add.2. New York, June 14.Google Scholar
  49. United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. 1998. The Strategic Defence Review (SDR) HC 138 1997–1998. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 2010. Tiger Team Final Report ‘Contract Support to Operations.’ London, March 16.Google Scholar
  51. US Department of Defense. 2001. Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2006. Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  53. ———. 2010. Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  54. US House of Representatives. 2010. Warlord, Inc. Washington, DC: Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.Google Scholar
  55. Van Duren, Emile C.G.J. 2010. Money Is Ammunition; Don’t Put It in the Wrong Hands. A View on COIN Contracting from Regional Command South. Militaire Spectator 179: 564–578.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018
This entry was posted in Afghanistan and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply